Orientalism refers to the imitation or depiction of aspects of Eastern cultures in the West by writers, designers and artists. An "Orientalist" may be a person engaged in these activities, but it is also the traditional term for any scholar of Oriental studies. Orientalism was more widely used in art history referring mostly to the works of French artists in the 19th century, whose subject matter, color and style used elements from their travel to the Mediterranean countries of North Africa and the Near East (or western Asia).

These meanings were given a new twist by 20th century scholar Edward Said in his controversial book Orientalism, in which he uses the term to describe a Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of hostile and deprecatory views of the East, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. When used in this sense, Orientalism implies essentializing and prejudiced outsider interpretations of Eastern cultures and peoples. Said was critical of this scholarly tradition and also of certain modern scholars, particularly Bernard Lewis.

In contrast, some modern scholars have used the term to refer to writers of the Imperialist era who had pro-Eastern attitudes, as opposed to those who saw nothing of value in non-Western cultures.

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Page 9 of 89   Paintings: 1059
A Caravan on the Way to Cairo - Felix Ziem - www.orientalism-in-art.org
A Caravan on the Way to Cairo
Felix Ziem
Marshal Ney Supporting the Rear Guard During the Retreat... - Adolphe Yvon - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Marshal Ney Supporting the Rear Guard During the Retreat...
Adolphe Yvon
The heroine of Fifty Years Ago Miss Florence Nightingale... - William Hatherell - www.orientalism-in-art.org
The heroine of Fifty Years Ago Miss Florence Nightingale...
William Hatherell
The capture of Jerusalem from the Jebusites - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
The capture of Jerusalem from the Jebusites
William Brassey Hole
Christ preaching to this disciples and others - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Christ preaching to this disciples and others
William Brassey Hole
The Pretty Maid - Leon Francois Comerre - www.orientalism-in-art.org
The Pretty Maid
Leon Francois Comerre
The Harem 5 - John Frederick Lewis - www.orientalism-in-art.org
The Harem 5
John Frederick Lewis
Jesus commanding Matthew the publican to follow him - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Jesus commanding Matthew the publican to follow him
William Brassey Hole
Jesus showing himself to Peter and others by the Sea... - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Jesus showing himself to Peter and others by the Sea...
William Brassey Hole
A Moorish Interior   1 - Rudolph Ernst - www.orientalism-in-art.org
A Moorish Interior 1
Rudolph Ernst
The centurion beseaching Jesus on behalf of his servant - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
The centurion beseaching Jesus on behalf of his servant
William Brassey Hole
Nehemiah makes his petition to Artaxerxes - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Nehemiah makes his petition to Artaxerxes
William Brassey Hole

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Page 9 of 89   Paintings: 1059