Orientalism refers to the imitation or depiction of aspects of Eastern cultures in the West by writers, designers and artists. An "Orientalist" may be a person engaged in these activities, but it is also the traditional term for any scholar of Oriental studies. Orientalism was more widely used in art history referring mostly to the works of French artists in the 19th century, whose subject matter, color and style used elements from their travel to the Mediterranean countries of North Africa and the Near East (or western Asia).

These meanings were given a new twist by 20th century scholar Edward Said in his controversial book Orientalism, in which he uses the term to describe a Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of hostile and deprecatory views of the East, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. When used in this sense, Orientalism implies essentializing and prejudiced outsider interpretations of Eastern cultures and peoples. Said was critical of this scholarly tradition and also of certain modern scholars, particularly Bernard Lewis.

In contrast, some modern scholars have used the term to refer to writers of the Imperialist era who had pro-Eastern attitudes, as opposed to those who saw nothing of value in non-Western cultures.

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Page 7 of 89   Paintings: 1059
The Sacristy of Toledo Cathedral - John Frederick Lewis - www.orientalism-in-art.org
The Sacristy of Toledo Cathedral
John Frederick Lewis
A Turkish Girl - John Frederick Lewis - www.orientalism-in-art.org
A Turkish Girl
John Frederick Lewis
Judah pleading before Joseph for his brother Benjamin - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Judah pleading before Joseph for his brother Benjamin
William Brassey Hole
The four lepers looting the camp of the Syrians - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
The four lepers looting the camp of the Syrians
William Brassey Hole
A great multitude of fishes - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
A great multitude of fishes
William Brassey Hole
A Muezzin Calling From The Top Of A Minaret The Faithful... - Jean-Léon Gérôme - www.orientalism-in-art.org
A Muezzin Calling From The Top Of A Minaret The Faithful...
Jean-Léon Gérôme
A Court In The Alhambra In The Time Of The Moors - Edwin Lord Weeks - www.orientalism-in-art.org
A Court In The Alhambra In The Time Of The Moors
Edwin Lord Weeks
Jesus mocked by Roman soldiers - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Jesus mocked by Roman soldiers
William Brassey Hole
Jesus brought before Caiaphas and the Council - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Jesus brought before Caiaphas and the Council
William Brassey Hole
Moses and the burning bush - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
Moses and the burning bush
William Brassey Hole
David playing on the harp before Saul - William Brassey Hole - www.orientalism-in-art.org
David playing on the harp before Saul
William Brassey Hole
A Cottage Interior - Frederick Goodall - www.orientalism-in-art.org
A Cottage Interior
Frederick Goodall

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Page 7 of 89   Paintings: 1059